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Performance of Ternary Lithium Battery and Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery in Outdoor Portable Power Sources



Performance of Ternary Lithium Battery and Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery in Outdoor Portable Power Sources


In the outdoor portable power source market, Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) batteries and Ternary Lithium batteries are the two main types of battery cells. Both Ternary Lithium batteries and Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries exhibit different advantages and disadvantages in the use of outdoor portable power sources.


Ternary Lithium Battery, also known as Lithium-ion ternary battery, is a type of lithium-ion battery that consists of Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC) or Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide (NCA). On the other hand, Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries are primarily composed of positive and negative electrodes, separators, electrolytes, and outer casings. The positive electrode, serving as the energy storage unit in lithium-ion batteries, comprises active materials, conductive agents, binders, among others. In Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries, the positive electrode's active material is Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4), known for its excellent cycle stability, high-temperature resistance, and safety features. These different structural compositions lead to distinct performance characteristics.


Safety: Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries exhibit relatively higher thermal stability and are less prone to combustion or explosion under high-temperature conditions. This is due to their decomposition temperature of 800°C, significantly higher than the 200°C of Ternary Lithium batteries. Hence, Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries hold a substantial advantage in safety.


However, this doesn't imply inferior safety in Ternary Lithium batteries. In fact, with advancements in safety design within the power battery system and various system enhancements such as over-charge protection, over-discharge protection, over-temperature protection, over-current protection, etc., the safety performance of Ternary Lithium batteries can be guaranteed. Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries demonstrate higher safety, less prone to explosions or fires. Experiments and testing have proven that the high-temperature resistance and chemical stability of Lithium Iron Phosphate result in lower risks of thermal runaway compared to Ternary Lithium batteries. Therefore, in harsh outdoor environments, Lithium Iron Performance of Ternary Lithium Battery and Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery in Outdoor Portable Power Sources 1Phosphate batteries offer higher safety assurances.



Moreover, in practical applications, Ternary Lithium batteries have relatively higher energy density, providing faster charging speeds and stronger power output, suitable for scenarios with high endurance demands, such as electric vehicles. Meanwhile, Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries find more extensive applications in the energy storage field due to their long cycle life and lower costs.


Service Life: Ternary Lithium batteries exhibit more stable energy loss over usage. Specifically, after over 1000 cycles of charge-discharge, they can retain 80% battery efficiency. However, their energy output in low-temperature environments tends to be unstable, maintaining approximately 80% of the normal capacity at -20°C. This implies that in extreme conditions, such as winter outdoor explorations or climbing activities, Ternary Lithium batteries might not provide sufficient power. Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries, on the other hand, exhibit more stable performance in terms of battery degradation. Even after 3000+ cycles of charge-discharge, they can maintain 80% battery efficiency. Comparatively, their energy output remains more stable in low-temperature environments, maintaining about 50% of normal capacity at -20°C. Therefore, Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries are more suitable for daily outdoor activities like camping, photography, etc.


Energy Density and Charging Speed: Presently, Ternary Lithium batteries generally have higher energy density than Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries. According to some test data, Ternary Lithium batteries can achieve an energy density of 200Wh/kg, whereas Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries typically hover around 150Wh/kg. This means that, under the same weight, Ternary Lithium batteries can offer higher energy output. Looking at charging speed, Ternary Lithium batteries are usually faster compared to Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries. Some test data demonstrates that Ternary Lithium batteries are suitable for fast charging and ultra-fast charging, while Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries exhibit relatively slower charging rates. This is mainly because Ternary Lithium batteries have faster ion migration speeds, enabling quicker charging processes."

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